The Women’s Latrine

Latrine 01

As if the lack of privacy in the barracks was not enough, the bathroom and shower facilities were housed in military-style latrine buildings. The one shown here is a reconstruction of a Women’s Latrine (there was one for women and one for men in each block of fourteen barracks). In a Manzanar latrine, there were toilets and a communal sink, an open changing area, and showers. There were no partitions and there was no privacy whatsoever. On an average day, 150 people used each latrine.

“One of the hardest things to endure was the communal latrines, with no partitions; and showers with no stalls.”          

Rosie Kakuuchi, Manzanar

NPS Brochure, “Manzanar: Japanese Americans at Manzanar”

The photos below show the stark facilities as they were inside the Latrine.

Latrine 02

Here was the first row of toilets…

Latrine 03

This was the communal sink (trough) and the open changing area for the shower…

 

Latrine 04

Here was the view from the second row of toilets across to the changing area and communal sink…

 

Latrine 05

This was the view into the shower room…

 

Latrine 06

This was the view out of the shower room…

The people who were taken to Manzanar employed many strategies for finding some measure of privacy, including going to the toilet and the shower late at night, or to a latrine that was less frequently used than others.

“Children are amazingly adaptable. What would be grotesquely abnormal became my normality in the prisoner of war camps. It became routine for me to line up three times a day to eat lousy food in a noisy mess hall. It became normal for me to go with my father to bathe in a mass shower.”

                                         George Takei, Child at Rohwer and Tule Lake

In many ways, this story about the latrines is the most shocking of all about the  WRA Camps. There is a dehumanizing quality to the latrines, almost as though there was an effort to treat people with greater disrespect than did the incarceration itself. This was done by our government in the name of national security. Done to our fellow Americans.

It felt like an invasion of privacy to take these photos. Still, I think it was necessary to do so…to witness to the scale of the injustice done with the WRA Camps.

As I continue this part of my journey, walking through Manzanar, come along with me.  I hope my photos and reflections, and especially the commentary of people who lived there, will bring Manzanar to life for you.

NOTE: If you are having trouble seeing all of the posts, click the Journey of Conscience banner at the top of the page.

THANKS for joining me!  If you’d like to follow this blog, just scroll all the way to the bottom of the page and click the “Follow” button. If you feel so moved, share this blog with others as well.

Grace and peace,

Art

LIVING IN BARRACKS

Barrack 01

Have you ever lived in military barracks?  The worst military barracks of our era (constructed shortly after World War II and used at least through the Vietnam War) were far better than the barracks at Manzanar. For one thing, the military barracks were solidly built, and held out the wind, rain, fog, and dust. They generally had linoleum or tile over a wood or concrete base. It was possible (and required) to mop and wax them regularly to keep them shining. Dust particles were not allowed to accumulate. There was ample light and heat. Finally, there were only soldiers, sailors, or marines in those military barracks.

Here are some facts about people who lived in barracks at Manzanar.

  • There were 10,046 people in Manzanar.
  • There were 504 barracks, each with 4 “apartments.”
  • Authorities planned for 8 people per “apartment.”
  • Unrelated single persons lived in barracks apart from families.

The people who were taken to Manzanar were in for a shock about the sorry state of their living quarters. For starters, only some of the barracks were completed when people began arriving. The rest had to be built in haste.  In the hurried process, green lumber was used. That green lumber was sure to dry up quickly in the harsh Owens Valley climate, and thereby create gaps in the roofs, the walls, and the flooring.

The problem with the green lumber wouldn’t have been as bad, if the barracks had been designed and built properly. However, the exterior, wood frame walls consisted of pine boards covered with tarpaper (with thin wood slats to hold that in place). There was no proper exterior siding over the tarpaper. There was neither insulation nor interior covering of the walls, the roof, or the floor… just bare wood. Everything leaked. The worst by far were the floors.  There were gaps in the wood planks and there were knot holes. When the wind blew, dust and sand poured into the buildings. The carpenters did the best they could under impossible circumstances, but it wasn’t enough to result in adequately constructed housing, even for barracks (which are by definition Spartan).

Building Barrack

This picture of the barracks under construction shows how bare bones and flimsy they really were.  Still, the physical inadequacy was just the beginning.

The fundamental problem with the barracks was that they were barracks.  Barracks are designed for armies not for families. Each barrack was 20 feet wide and 100 feet long. There were four “apartments,” using the term loosely. Each “apartment” was equipped with a single bare light bulb, a small oil heater, and not much more. There were steel army cots. Upon arriving in Manzanar, each person was given a cloth sack to fill with straw for a mattress. There was no other furniture and there were no partitions. In most cases, eight people were crammed into a 20’x 25′ “apartment.” It would have been bad enough if they had all been members of the same family.  But, often there were two families in one “apartment,” or there were unrelated couples in the same “apartment” with a family. Sometimes those couples were newlyweds. What a honeymoon.

“Not only did we stop eating at home, there was no longer a home to eat in. The cubicles we had were too small for anything you might call ‘living.’ Mama couldn’t cook meals there.  It was impossible to find any privacy there. We slept there and spent most of our waking hours elsewhere.”

Jeanne Wakatsuki Houston, Child at Manzanar, from “Farewell to Manzanar”

The next two photos are of the barracks reconstructed by the National Park Service.

Barrack 02

If you look closely, you can see that the exterior wall “siding” consisted of either 1″x 6″ or 1″x 8″ pine boards. Same for the floor boards.  As the green wood dried and shrank, it was also subject to warping and cracking.  The exterior doors at the end of the building were constructed of the same pine boards (they admit light, and therefore dust).

“I remember waking up in the morning and being covered in sand. Whenever the wind blew, the sand would come in through the floor.

                                 Frank Kitamoto, Child at Manzanar, Densho Digital Archives (DDA)

Some folks were handy and fashioned small pieces of furniture. Below, you see a replica of a baby crib that was built by a resident.

Barrack 04

You can also see one of the small oil heaters found in each “apartment.” (Note: the suitcase-like device on the right is part of the NPS interactive display).

For some, the “apartments” eventually evolved, with resident-installed modifications that included sheetrock on the interior walls and linoleum on the floors. However, for many with sparse resources the “apartments” remained the same for three years.

Inside Barrack

Here’s a picture of a gentleman lying on his cot.

“The room was small and there was no furniture (other than cots). We made a table and bench from scrap wood. We made quilts or rugs out of discarded clothing. Nothing was wasted.” (Then, responding to a question about changing over time)…“The apartment stayed the same the whole time we were there.”

       Sumiko Yamauchi, Manzanar, DDA

As I continue this part of my journey, walking through Manzanar, come along with me.  I hope my photos and reflections, and especially the commentary of people who lived there, will bring Manzanar to life for you.

NOTE: If you are having trouble seeing all of the posts, click the Journey of Conscience banner at the top of the page.

THANKS for joining me!  If you’d like to follow this blog, just scroll all the way to the bottom of the page and click the “Follow” button. If you feel so moved, share this blog with others as well.

Grace and peace,

Art

It was a prison camp…

Tower

Manzanar and the nine other WRA Camps were called all manner of things.  FDR first referred to them as “Concentration camps,” when his administration was considering the detainment of over 110,000 Americans of Japanese ancestry. As they rolled out the detainment, the administration shifted to the term “Relocation camps,” almost as though they were undertaking some benign, even helpful enterprise.  Reinforcing this perspective, some called them “Evacuation camps” in a process of “Evacuation,” suggesting that the WRA Camps were even designed to protect these Japanese Americans from hostility and violence on the part of their fellow Americans. “Internment camps” became a phrase that stuck in official and unofficial parlance.

As you get close to Manzanar, the most notable landmark is the reconstructed guard tower. There were eight towers that surrounded the residential compound at  Manzanar. They were manned 24 hours a day by armed guards. The towers included searchlights that scanned the camp in the hours of darkness. The purpose was clearly to maintain control of the people living inside the camp and to prevent escape. Manzanar was a prison camp that held Americans without due process, Americans who were neither charged with nor convicted of any crime.

“The sight of the barbed wire enclosure with armed soldiers standing guard as our bus turned slowly through the gate stunned us… Here was a camp of sheds enclosed with a high barbed wire fence, with guard towers and soldiers with machine guns.”

                                            Estelle Ishigo, Manzanar, from “Infamy,” by Richard Reeves

 “When I asked my mother, ‘Why are we here, why are we in this prison?’… She said simply, ‘It’s because we’re Japanese.’ ”

Unknown child in Manzanar, from NPS video, “Remembering Manzanar”

Manzanar was a prison camp. It was a city, the largest in the Owens Valley, and one with several amenities. There was healthcare, there were places of worship, there were schools, and there was plenty of food. There was generally freedom to move throughout the camp.  But the people were held captive against their will. They lived in barracks, ate in mess halls, and went to the bathroom and showered in latrines with no partitions. There was no privacy in any of the buildings available to them. It was the intimacy of forced communal living.

In the days to come, you will see pictures and read commentary about the various aspects of life at Manzanar.  The National Park Service has done a careful job of providing a historically based recreation of Manzanar.  I will do my best to show it to you with my photos. In addition, the Densho Encyclopedia, the NPS, and other sources have recorded and archived a host of interviews with people who lived in the camps. In my coming posts, I will share quotes from some of those sources.

As I continue this part of my journey, walking through Manzanar, come along with me.  I hope my photos and reflections, and especially the commentary of people who lived there, will bring Manzanar to life for you.

NOTE: If you are having trouble seeing all of the posts, click the Journey of Conscience banner at the top of the page.

THANKS for joining me!  If you’d like to follow this blog, just scroll all the way to the bottom of the page and click the “Follow” button. If you feel so moved, share this blog with others as well.

Grace and peace,

Art

Places of Beauty – Arai Pond

Arai Pond 02

It isn’t full of water yet, but it is an historic place of beauty. This weekend, water in the pond will bless all those who visit as part of the Annual Pilgrimage to Manzanar.

One of the good things that happened at Manzanar was that in the midst of hardship, some creative souls found it possible to construct places of beauty. One of those places was Arai Pond.  It was built by Mr. Arai in the middle of Block Number 33, the block just east of Pleasure Park (also known as Merritt Park…more about that later).

During the Annual Pilgrimage time in late April each year, the pond is filled with water.  A relative of Mr. Arai’s comes to the Pilgrimage and spends some considerable time sitting on a bench by the pond, sharing her memories of life as a child in the camp.  Unfortunately, I had to miss the Pilgrimage by just a couple of days. Next Spring, as I begin my trip to the WRA Camps in Arizona, Arkansas, and Colorado, I will stop again at Manzanar…this time to be there during the Pilgrimage.

Mr. Arai’s Pond is a spot of tranquility. I imagine that it offered a place where people could go to be transported spiritually out of Camp life, if only for a moment. One of Mr. Arai’s nieces works as a National Park Service volunteer each year during the Pilgrimage month of April. She has a smile and a countenance that reflect the creative spark and spiritual depth which led to the envisioning and building of Arai Pond.

Next year, as I begin the last leg of my journey, I’ll include a photo of Arai Pond filled with water, as well as photos of the Pilgrimage.

As I continue this part of my journey, walking through Manzanar, come along with me.  I hope my photos and reflections, and especially the commentary of people who lived there, will bring Manzanar to life for you.

NOTE: If you are having trouble seeing all of the posts, click the Journey of Conscience banner at the top of the page.

THANKS for joining me!  If you’d like to follow this blog, just scroll all the way to the bottom of the page and click the “Follow” button. If you feel so moved, share this blog with others as well.

Grace and peace,

Art

The First Sign

Road Sign

Driving through the Owens Valley, past Bishop and another hour down to Manzanar, I can’t help wondering what was going through the minds of the coastal urban dwellers who were brought out into the middle of this vast, stark area.

The War Relocation Authority, created in response to Executive order 9066, established ten so-called War Relocation Authority Relocation Centers, from California to Arkansas. In early 1942, the United States government began to forcibly move Americans of Japanese ancestry out of their communities and into these ten camps.

Manzanar was one of the best known of the WRA Camps, located in the Owens Valley, on Highway 395, fifty miles south of Bishop and 220 miles from Los Angeles, California. It is a region of both profound natural beauty and remoteness.

The second time I visited on this journey, just this week, the wind was blowing so hard that I was concerned I wouldn’t be able to change camera lenses out in the open. A minor inconvenience… in perspective, a trivial concern.

“By the time we reached our destination… it was late afternoon. The first thing I saw was a yellow swirl across a blurred, reddish setting sun. The bus was being pelted by what sounded like splattering rain. It wasn’t rain. This was my first look at something I would soon know very well, a billowing flurry of dust and sand churned up by the wind through Owens Valley.”

                                                       Jeanne Wakatsuki Houston, Child at Manzanar

                                                               “Farewell To Manzanar”

As I continue this part of my journey, walking through Manzanar, come along with me.  I hope my photos and reflections, and especially the commentary of people who lived there, will bring Manzanar to life for you.

NOTE: If you are having trouble seeing all of the posts, click the Journey of Conscience banner at the top of the page.

THANKS for joining me!  If you’d like to follow this blog, just scroll all the way to the bottom of the page and click the “Follow” button. If you feel so moved, share this blog with others as well.

Grace and peace,

Art

On the Road to Manzanar…

GMC 01

This morning, I’m setting out on the first leg of my journey. My Canon camera, my Canon backpack with lenses, my laptop computer, a yellow notepad, and an old leather brief case full of background materials are all packed in the GMC. In two days, I’ll be at the entrance to what the federal government called Manzanar Relocation Center. The trip will be like driving through a series of beautiful paintings, starting with the vista of Mt. Shasta, and ending with the first glimpse of the Owens Valley, coming down the hill just southeast of Mammoth Lakes.

I decided to take this journey because the (Republican) Presidential rhetoric of today, aimed at American Muslims and Americans of Mexican ancestry, mirrors the World War II (Democratic) Presidential decisions targeting Americans of Japanese ancestry. This haunting connection has jerked at my conscience.

My journey is about understanding…understanding the rhetoric and decisions of American political leaders as America entered WWII.  I want to understand the human consequences of the terrible mistakes, decisions, and actions of our government in 1942.

Resolutely, I want to do whatever I can to help protect and preserve the rights and liberties of all Americans, especially those who are most vulnerable.

My journey is about honor. In my own small way, I want to honor the men, women, and children who entered life in the WRA Camps. Men and women volunteered out of the Camps to serve in the military.  Those in combat served with courage and distinction in the U.S. Army 442nd Regimental Combat Team. Suffering tremendous casualties in the European theater, the 442nd was one of the most highly decorated units in the war. Those who remained in the Camps found ways to be productive in the midst of captivity, by providing support for others, by creating places of beauty in the Camps themselves, by organizing, and by expressing dissent. In the context of deprivation, imprisonment, and the loss of the fundamental rights of citizenship, people lived with great dignity and honor. With my journey, I want to bring attention to the honor of all those who served in the military, and all those who remained in the Camps. I want to lift up their lives, their tenacity, their courage, and their sacrifice.

As I go down the road in my GMC, come along for the ride.  I hope you will make my journey yours. In spite of the serious nature of the subject, I hope you will enjoy the trip.

NOTE: If you are having trouble seeing all of the posts, click the Journey of Conscience banner at the top of the page.

THANKS for joining me!  If you’d like to follow this blog, just scroll all the way to the bottom of the page and click the “Follow” button. If you feel so moved, share this blog with others as well.

Grace and peace,

Art

Who Went to Manzanar?

Japanese Americans Wait for Special Train to Take Them to Manzanar War Relocation Center

Rather, Who Was Sent to Manzanar?  It was not a voluntary act.  There were wholesale violations of civil liberties in moving thousands of Americans of Japanese ancestry to the WRA Camps. Some people did theoretically “Volunteer” to go to the camps in the early days. In reality, they were coerced by circumstance to go to the camps. There can be no volunteering when there is a climate of mass hysteria, when there are widespread threats of violence and expressions of hatred, when the media are fanning the flames, when most politicians are pandering to the fear mongers and fear mongering themselves,  and when the government orders you to abandon virtually all you own and to prepare to leave for an unknown destination, with only what you can carry.

Who was sent to Manzanar?  Where did they live at the time of being sent? What was their background? What was their citizenship status?  Those are the things I’d like to address briefly in this post.

Americans… of Japanese Ancestry… Were sent to Prison Camps. They were not tried and convicted, even in a Kangaroo court. They had no due process. They were guilty only of being Japanese Americans. Those who were sent to the camps were either first generation (Issei) or second generation (Nisei) Japanese Americans. The Issei were immigrants who had come to America for a better future for their families. The Nisei had been born in the United States.

The Majority lived in Los Angeles at the time they were taken to Manzanar. Others came from cites elsewhere in California and in Washington state.

The Americans who were imprisoned in the WRA Camps came from a wide variety of experience.  They were shop owners, commercial fishermen (who owned their boats), farmers (tenant farmers because they were precluded by federal law from owning farmland), orchardists, nurserymen, landscape gardeners, restaurant owners, chefs, writers, doctors, nurses, dentists, professors, and every form of working person. They were husbands and wives and children in tight knit families.  They were single people. They were prosperous families and families who struggled with fewer resources. They were people who owned their own homes and people who rented apartments. They were people who owned cars and people who depended upon public transportation.

These Americans were accused of being disloyal. Some government officials, including Lt. General John DeWitt, suggested (based upon no evidence or intelligence data whatsoever) that there was a “Fifth Column” of traitors among these Americans who were waiting to collaborate with a Japanese invasion of the West Coast of the United States.  Richard Reeves, in his book “Infamy,” notes that “In fact there was not a single American of Japanese descent, alien or citizen, charged with espionage or sabotage during the war.” (p. xvi in his introduction). Among all of the cruelties of this chapter in American history, the charge of disloyalty was perhaps the most stinging.

“In fact there was not a single American of Japanese descent, alien or citizen, charged with espionage or sabotage during the war.”

Richard Reeves, in Infamy, p. xvi

Two thirds of these Americans were citizens.  The second generation Nisei were American citizens by birth.  One third of these Americans had been denied citizenship by law.  The first generation Issei, who had immigrated to the United States for a better future, were denied U.S. citizenship by a series of federal government actions and federal laws.  In 1911, the U.S. Bureau of Immigration and Naturalization ordered that declarations of intent to file for citizenship could only be received from whites and people of African descent.  The Immigration Act of 1924 declared that no alien ineligible for citizenship would be admitted into the country. In 1952, Congress passed Public 414, allowing Japanese aliens to become naturalized U.S. citizens.

“The name Manzanar didn’t mean anything to us when we left Boyle Heights. We didn’t know where it was or what it was. We went because the government ordered us to.”

Jeanne Wakatsuki Houston, Farewell to Manzanar, p. 17

Next Steps on the Journey… In 12 days, I set out for Manzanar, driving in my GMC.

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Grace and peace,

Art

 

 

The First Step…Manzanar

Manzanar (011)© Art Mills Photos

Getting ready for my trip to Manzanar…  I’m filled with anticipation as I get ready to take the next step on my journey.  This will be my third trip to Manzanar, but my first on this Journey of Conscience.  The first two trips crystallized the notion that I need to do this.  It is a long drive from home, nine to ten hours depending upon the number of stops along the way. I’ll drive across the Cascades, down past Reno, and south along Hwy 395 on the east side of the Sierras. The trip will take me over eight mountain passes, past two beautiful lakes and one reservoir, and through countless plant and wildlife communities.  Other than Reno and Carson City, the towns along the way are small, some just hamlets.  Like all of the other WRA Camps, Manzanar was situated for isolation from the rest of the population.

For Manzanar maps, click this link.

You will see from my upcoming photos that Manzanar is a place of stark beauty. The wildness and beauty of the setting helps me remember that Manzanar was also a place of great contrasts; a place where the human experiences were as wide and varied as the thousands of people who were brought there.

There is still much work to do, material to read, and maps of the camp to peruse. Hopefully, I will be able to talk with people who lived in Manzanar as children. Always, my hope is to capture, through direct conversation and through reading and watching recorded video interviews, the feelings and insights of Americans who lived in the camps. Part of my journey is to hear and to share their narrative.

Next Steps on the Journey… In 17 days, I set out for Manzanar, driving in my GMC.

THANKS for reading!  If you’d like to follow this blog, just scroll all the way to the bottom of the page and click the “Follow” button.

Grace and peace,

Art

SUPPORTERS & OPPONENTS

President Franklyn D. Roosevelt signed Executive Order 9066 on February 19, 1942, setting in motion the process that would strip the Constitutional Rights from 120,000 Americans of Japanese ancestry and move them to prison camps.

FDR Signs 9066

Signing the executive order was preceded by an intense debate, in public and private, among a cast of characters from the military, state and federal governments, and the major media. Unfortunately, it was predictable that many so-called leaders would support the unconstitutional dislocation of Japanese Americans to what President Roosevelt called concentration camps. They either fostered or caved into a mass hysteria about the supposedly impending invasion of the West Coast of the United State. Looking back, it is surprising that there were some key leaders who opposed the drastic action.

The Supporters

Going to the lowest common denominator of the day, 100% of the Members of the Congressional delegations from California, Oregon, and Washington joined together to pressure FDR to move Japanese Americans into camps. They were egged on and supported by major newspapers in the West, including the Los Angeles Times, the Sacramento Bee, the San Francisco Chronicle, the San Francisco Examiner, and the Seattle Times.

There were six, prominent core supporters of the eventual internment policy. Some of them conspired over a period of days to persuade FDR.

Given that I was not around when Japan attacked the United States at Pearl Harbor, perhaps I have no right to say what I think.  However, leaders are not great because they lead in easy times. They are great because they lead in difficult times, with both courage and wisdom. Of course, it is true that great leaders often emerge after having made some terrible mistakes in the past. Consider the case of Winston Churchill.

In my opinion, the worst leaders in this instance were California Attorney General Earl Warren and New York columnist Walter Lippmann. These two men basically parroted the drivel coming out of the mouth of Lt. General John DeWitt, then commander of the military on the West Coast.  He was a racist.  Beyond that, he made assertions about the possible invasion by Japan and collaboration by Japanese Americans that had utterly no basis in fact or in current military intelligence.  The words and work of Warren and Lippmann, validated and magnified General DeWitt’s distortions, to terrible effect.

The six key supporters are shown below in contemporary photos.

LA Mayor Fletcher Bowron. [9/5/52archival photo]

Los Angeles Mayor Fletcher Bowron

Gov Culbert Olsen

California Governor Culbert Olsen

earlwarren

California Attorney General Earl Warren

Gen. John DeWitt

Lt. General John DeWitt (Commander of the Western Defense Command)

Edward R Murrow

Edward R. Murrow, CBS News

Walter Lippmann

Walter Lippmann, New York Columnist

If you want more info about what the supporters were doing, click this link,

The Opponents

There were three surprising, prominent opponents in the Roosevelt Administration to the rounding up and imprisoning Americans of Japanese ancestry.

Sec of War Henry Stimson

Henry L. Stimson, Secretary of War

AG Francis Biddle

Francis Biddle, U.S. Attorney General

J. Edgar Hoover 1942

J. Edgar Hoover, Director of the F.B.I.

Then, there was Eleanor Roosevelt…

Eleanor Roosevelt

Eleanor Roosevelt, First Lady

On December 11, 1941, Eleanor Roosevelt wrote the following in her syndicated column, “My Day:”

“This is, perhaps, the greatest test this country has ever met…Our citizens come from all the nations of the world…If we can not meet the challenge of fairness to our citizens of every nationality, of really believing in the Bill of Rights and making it a reality for all loyal American citizens, regardless of race, creed, or color, if we cannot keep in check antisemitism, anti-racial feelings, as well as anti-religious feelings, then we shall have removed the one real hope for the future on which all humanity must now rely.”

Insofar as Americans of Japanese ancestry were concerned…It was not to be.

My main Source for this post: INFAMY: The Shocking Story of the Japanese American Internment in World War II, by Richard Reeves, Picador, Henry Holt and Company, NY, 2015.

Next Steps on the Journey… I’ll be preparing for my trip to Manzanar later this month.

THANKS for reading!  If you’d like to follow this blog, just scroll all the way to the bottom of the page and click the “Follow” button.

Grace and peace,

Art

New Travel Plans

Life is what happens while you’re making other plans. Several people have asked me if I am going to all the camps at once.  Here is my New Plan for visiting the ten camps:

  • Manzanar – Late April, this year.
  • Heart Mountain, Minidoka, & Topaz – September, this year.
  • Gila River, Poston, Granada, Jerome, & Rohwer – May, next year.
  • Tule Lake – Several times in between, and at the end.

Tule Lake is close by,  just across the border, south of Klamath Falls, Oregon.  So, I can visit frequently… Tule Lake was the largest and the worst of the camps in many regards. It was the place where dissidents, and/or those whom the government viewed as disloyal, were transported.  Tule Lake had a notoriously crowded jail.  It was the camp from which many Americans of Japanese descent were deported to Japan.  It was the camp from which many Americans had their citizenship literally stripped from them, without due process.  In the midst of the complexity of the WRA, Tule Lake will require much more work in order to understand it.  More about that later…

My next post about the supporters and opponents of FDR’s Executive Order 9066 will follow in a day or so…

Grace and peace,

Art

P.S.  THANKS for reading!  If you’d like to follow this blog, just scroll all the way to the bottom of the page and click the “Follow” button.

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